Class F Fires

Understanding Class F Fires and Fire Extinguisher Ratings

Fire safety is a massive concern for everyone, and it’s crucial to be well-informed about the different types of fires and the right tools to combat them. In this blog post, we will focus on Class F fires, which are fires that involve cooking oils and fats. We will also discuss how Class F fire ratings are assigned to fire extinguishers.

What Are Class F Fires?

Class F fires are a specific category of fire involving cooking oils and fats, such as vegetable oil, animal fat, or even butter. These fires are common in kitchens and other areas where cooking or frying is taking place. Unlike other fire classes, Class F fires are particularly dangerous due to the high temperatures and the potential for the fire to quickly spread if not extinguished properly.

Common causes of these fires include:

1. Overheated oil or fat in cooking pans.

2. Splashes of hot oil onto stovetops.

3. Ignition of grease-laden appliances.

Understanding Class F Fire Extinguisher Ratings

To effectively combat Class F fires, it’s essential to use the right fire extinguisher or firefighting tool. Fire extinguishers are labelled with specific fire class ratings to indicate the types of fires they are suitable for. In the case of Class F fires, specific fire extinguishers must be used. These are likely Wet Chemical fire extinguishers or a not-so-common MultiCHEM fire extinguisher. To find out more about these fire extinguishers, check out a more detailed blog post regarding them HERE.

Class F fire extinguisher ratings typically follow a standard system, which makes it easy for users to select the appropriate extinguisher for the scenario in which they will be placed. These ratings are expressed as “Class F” or “F” and are often accompanied by numerical ratings. For example, you might see an extinguisher labelled as “75F.”

The numerical value accompanying the “Class F” designation represents the scale of the extinguisher’s protection. The number directly correlates to the size of the deep fat fryer it can be used against. For example, a 75F-rated fire extinguisher can be used on all deep fat fryers that are 75 litres and below.  It’s crucial to select an extinguisher with a rating appropriate for the size of the kitchen and the potential fire hazards present.


Understanding Class F fires and knowing how to use Class F fire extinguishers is essential for kitchen safety. Whether you’re a professional chef or a home cook, being prepared for a Class F fire can make all the difference in preventing a minor incident from turning into a major disaster. Always check the fire extinguisher’s rating when choosing a fire extinguisher for a commercial or industrial kitchen.

By following these guidelines and being informed about Class F fires. Hopefully, this can give you the information you need to keep your kitchen and cooking areas safe.

Class D Fires

Understanding Class D Fires: Flammable Metal Fires and Their Extinguishing

When it comes to fire safety, it’s crucial to be well-informed about the different classes of fires and the appropriate methods to combat them. In this blog post, we’ll focus on Class D fires, which involve combustible metals and their extinguishment, including the use of specialist fire extinguishers.

Understanding Class D Fires

Class D fires are unique and can be extremely hazardous due to the involvement of combustible metals. These metals include magnesium, titanium, aluminium, sodium, and potassium, among others. When ignited, they burn at extremely high temperatures and can release flammable gases, making them challenging to extinguish with conventional methods.

Class D fires are commonly found in industrial settings, such as manufacturing plants, laboratories, and facilities that handle or store these metals. They can also occur in areas where metal dust is prevalent, such as metalworking shops.

Lithium Fires

Lithium fires are classed as Class D fires. However, Lithium-ion battery fires are not. These can commonly get mixed up. It is important to understand the difference for the safety of yourself and others around you. Lithium fires and lithium-ion battery fires are very different beasts and each has their own problems when it comes to extinguishing.

Lithium fires usually involve pure lithium metal, which is highly reactive when exposed to air or water. These fires are particularly challenging to extinguish due to the intense heat generated during combustion. Specialist L2 Dry Powder fire extinguishers must be used to smother the flames and prevent re-ignition. Unlike other Class D fire extinguishers, the L2 Dry Powder fire extinguisher can handle lithium fires. Lithium fires may occur in environments where lithium is stored or processed, such as laboratories or manufacturing facilities.

When a lithium-ion battery fails, it can release highly flammable electrolytes and gases. Extinguishing these fires requires specialised knowledge and equipment. This often involves the use of their own specialist fire extinguishers specifically designed for lithium-ion battery fires. These fires can occur in various settings where lithium-ion batteries are used, including electric vehicles, consumer electronics, and industrial equipment. To find out more information regarding Lithium-ion battery fires, find our in-depth blog post HERE.

Specialist Fire Extinguishers for Class D Fires

Combatting a Class D fire requires a specialist fire extinguisher designed to tackle the difficult and dangerous class of fire. The most commonly used extinguisher and the one that we offer is the L2 Dry Powder fire extinguisher. Unlike normal Dry Powder fire extinguishers, L2 extinguishers can only be used to fight Class D and Electrical fires. To learn more about the L2 Dry Powder extinguisher and other types of fire extinguishers, find our detailed blog post HERE

When facing a Class D fire, it’s essential to use the appropriate extinguisher for the specific metal involved. 

In conclusion, understanding Class D fires and having access to specialist fire extinguishers is crucial for the safety of individuals and the protection of valuable assets in environments where combustible metals are present. Being well-prepared and knowledgeable about the correct fire extinguishing methods can make a significant difference. This can help prevent disaster and ensure a safer workplace.

Class C Fires

Understanding Class C Fires: Flammable Gas Fires

When it comes to fire safety, it’s essential to be well-versed in the different classes of fires and the best ways to combat them. In this blog post, we’ll focus on Class C fires, also known as flammable gas fires. Understanding these fires is crucial for your safety and the safety of those around you.

What Are Class C Fires?

Class C fires involve flammable gases. They can occur in various settings, including industrial environments, laboratories, and even in the home. These fires can be any flammable gases such as propane, butane, methane, and natural gas.

Types of Fire Extinguishers for Class C Fires

Class C is not one of the more common types of fire. This can make them a challenge to find protection for. However, there are a few types of extinguishers that can be used on Class C fires:

1. Dry Powder Fire Extinguishers (ABC): These versatile extinguishers can be used on flammable gas fires along with Class A (ordinary combustibles), Class B (flammable liquids) and Electrical fires. They typically contain a mixture of monoammonium phosphate and ammonium sulfate as the extinguishing agent.

2. Monnex Dry Powder Fire Extinguishers: The Monnex fire extinguisher was created for high-risk circumstances likely on an industrial level. This fire extinguisher is given the BCE fire rating meaning it is able to combat Class B, C and Electrical fires.

3. Clean Agent Fire Extinguishers: These extinguishers use gases such as Halon, Halotron, or FM-200 to suppress fires without leaving residue. They are safe for use on Class C fires and are commonly used in data centres and other sensitive electronic environments.

Extinguishing Class C Fires

If you have to deal with a Class C fire, it is essential to use the appropriate fire extinguisher to avoid exacerbating the situation. Understanding which fire extinguisher to use and how to use them on a live fire is vital for your safety and the safety of others. Here’s how to use one of these fire extinguishers:

1. Pull the Pin: The first step is to pull the pin to break the tamper seal.

2. Aim at the Base: Aim the nozzle or hose at the base of the fire, not at the flames.

3. Squeeze the Handle: Squeeze the handle to release the extinguishing agent.

4. Sweep Side to Side: Using a side-to-side sweeping motion, cover the entire fire until it is out.

Remember that safety is a priority when dealing with any fire. If a fire is out of control or you’re unsure how to use a fire extinguisher, evacuate the area and call emergency services immediately.

Examples of Flammable Gases

Understanding which gases are flammable is crucial in identifying a Class C fire. Here are some examples of flammable gases:

1. Propane: Commonly used in grills, camping stoves, and heating systems.

2. Butane: Often found in portable butane stoves, cigarette lighters, and aerosol propellants.

3. Methane: The main component of natural gas used for heating and cooking.

4. Hydrogen: Used in various industrial applications, including the production of ammonia and as a rocket fuel.

5. Acetylene: Commonly used in welding and cutting applications.

6. Ethylene: Found in certain industrial processes and used in the production of plastics.

Understanding the flammable gases in your environment is the first step in preventing potential fires.

In conclusion, Class C fires (fires fueled by flammable gases) can pose significant dangers if not handled correctly. It’s crucial to be aware of the types of flammable gases in your surroundings and have the appropriate fire extinguisher on hand. 

Safety and preparedness are key in preventing and managing fires, ensuring the well-being of both people and property.

Class B Fires

Understanding Class B Fires:  Prevention and Extinguishing

When it comes to fire safety, understanding the different classes of fires is crucial for effective prevention and response. Class B fires, often referred to as flammable liquid fires, are a common type of fire hazard. In this informative blog post, we’ll explore what a Class B fire is, its causes, and the fire extinguishers that can be used to combat them.

What Is a Class B Fire?

Class B fires are fires involving flammable liquids. These can include a wide range of liquids, such as gasoline or oil. These types of fires are characterised by their ability to spread rapidly, producing intense flames and potentially hazardous situations. They can occur in various settings, from industrial facilities to homes, making it essential to be prepared for such emergencies.

Causes of Class B Fires

Class B fires can be sparked by various factors, including:

1. Spills and Leaks: Accidental spills or leaks of flammable liquids are common causes of these types of fires. Even a small spill can ignite if exposed to a spark or open flame.

2. Electrical Faults: Faulty wiring or electrical equipment can produce sparks that ignite nearby flammable liquids.

3. Human Error: Careless handling of flammable substances, such as smoking near fuel storage areas, can lead to flammable liquid fires.

4. Equipment Malfunctions: Mechanical failures in machinery that handle or store flammable liquids can cause fires.

Extinguishing Class B Fires

When dealing with a Class B fire, choosing the right fire extinguisher is crucial for effective suppression. There are a few types of fire extinguishers suitable for flammable liquid fires:

1. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Fire Extinguishers: CO2 extinguishers displace oxygen, suffocating the fire. They are highly effective for Class B fires and leave no residue, making them ideal for use around sensitive equipment. These extinguishers can also be used against Electrical fires, making them very useful.

2. Foam Fire Extinguishers: Foam extinguishers create a barrier over the surface of the flammable liquid, cutting off its oxygen supply and cooling the fire simultaneously. They are suitable for Class A and Class B fires.

3. Dry Powder Fire Extinguisher: Dry Powder extinguishers release a fine chemical powder onto the fire. This powder interrupts the fire’s chemical reaction by smothering the flames and preventing oxygen from reaching the fuel source. Dry powder extinguishers are effective against Class A, B, C and Electrical fires.

3. Clean Agent Fire Extinguishers: Clean agents work by interrupting the chemical reaction without leaving any residue. They are ideal for flammable liquid fires and are environmentally friendly.


Understanding Class B fires and having the right fire extinguisher on hand is essential for effective fire safety. Whether at home or in the workplace, being prepared for these types of fires can save lives and property. 

Always ensure that your fire extinguishers are up to date and regularly inspected and that you and those around you are familiar with their proper use in case of a fire-related emergency. By being informed and prepared, you can help protect yourself and potentially your loved ones against the devastating consequences of flammable liquid fires.

Class A Fires

Understanding Class A Fires: Prevention and Safety Measures

Fire safety is a critical aspect of protecting lives and property, and one of the key components of fire safety is understanding the different classes of fires. In this blog post, we will explore Class A fires, which are one the most common types of fires. We’ll discuss what they are, the materials that fuel them, and most importantly, how to prevent and extinguish them.

What is a Class A Fire?

Class A fires are fires that involve ordinary combustibles, such as wood, paper, cloth, and plastics. These materials leave behind ash when burned, making them relatively easy to identify. Understanding the fuel source is crucial when it comes to selecting the right fire extinguisher and firefighting methods.

Common Fuel Sources for Class A Fires

1. Wood: The most common fuel for this type of fire is wood. This includes anything from furniture to building materials.

2. Paper: Paper, including books, documents, and cardboard, can ignite easily and sustain a fire.

3. Cloth: Fabrics, clothing, curtains, and upholstery are all potential fuel sources.

4. Plastics: Many everyday items, like plastic containers, toys, and even some electronics, can contribute to Class A fires.

What is a Class A Fire Extinguisher Used For?

A Class A fire extinguisher is a fire extinguisher designed specifically for tackling Class A fires, which involve ordinary combustibles like wood, paper, cloth, and plastics. This could be the likes of a Water fire extinguisher, Foam fire extinguisher or Powder fire extinguisher. All of the types of extinguishers can tackle Class A fires. To learn more about these types of extinguishers, check out our blog post HERE.

When you encounter a Class A fire, it’s essential to use the right extinguisher, as using the wrong type can make the situation worse. A fire extinguisher’s primary purpose is to quickly and effectively suppress fires safely.

Preventing Class A Fires

Prevention is the best approach to dealing with Class A fires. Here are some essential fire prevention tips:

1. Proper Storage: Store flammable materials safely. Keep wood, paper, and plastics away from heat sources and open flames.

2. Electrical Safety: Ensure that electrical wiring and outlets are in good condition, and avoid overloading circuits.

3. Smoking Safety: Be cautious when smoking, and dispose of cigarette butts in designated containers.

4. Kitchen Safety: In the kitchen, be mindful of cooking and never leave a hot stove unattended.

Extinguishing Class A Fires

When it comes to extinguishing Class A fires, using the correct fire extinguisher that is designed specifically for them is essential. Follow these steps:

1. Pull: Pull the pin to unlock the extinguisher.

2. Aim: Aim the nozzle or hose at the base of the fire.

3. Squeeze: Squeeze the handle to release the extinguishing agent.

4. Sweep: Sweep the nozzle or hose from side to side to ensure that the fire is completely extinguished.


Class A fires can be hazardous if not handled correctly. Prevention and proper fire safety measures are key to minimising the risk of such fires.

Understanding the basics of these fires and how to use the correct fire extinguisher for Class A fires can make a significant difference in your safety and the safety of those around you. Stay informed, stay safe, and be prepared for any fire emergency.

guide to the classes of fire

A Guide to the Classes


This is a guide into all the different classes of fire that our extinguishers aim to combat. This guide is designed to help you make the correct decision with fire safety. When it comes to choosing the correct type of fire extinguishers for your specific needs, we are here to help.

This guide of the classes will show what the differences between the classes are and what makes each class of fire unique. We will also tell you what extinguishers are able to combat each class of fire.

Class A Fires

Class B Fires

Class C Fires

Class D Fires

Electrical Fires

Class F Fires

Class A Fires

Class A fires are generally caused by a naked flame or items of high temperatures coming into contact with combustible materials. Class A fires are fires involving solids such as paper or cardboard, any carbonaceous item fires are defined as Class A fires. This is the most common type of fire as these items are the most combustible and are the most common type of fuel.

Almost all premises are at risk of Class A fires due to the common use of such materials. There are many types of fire extinguisher that can be used on Class A fires. These are: Water, Foam, MultiCHEM, Powder, Wet Chemical and Water Mist.

Class B Fires

Class B fires are fires involving flammable liquids, these can be any of the likes of:  Cleaning fluids, Solvents, Fuels, Inks, Adhesives and Paints. Class B fires only make up for 2% of all fires but make up a massive 21% of all fire deaths. This Class of fires are extremely dangerous, this is why many different types of extinguisher aim to tackle them to try to protect the users. The main key to staying safe from Class B fires is prevention, this is why up to date COSHH assessments are key. For the initial stages of Class B fires, a fire bucket could be used, link to our blog post on fire buckets here.

Many settings may have a risk of a potential Class B fire. This is why most locations must have a fire extinguisher that is fit to fight such a fire. Fire extinguishers suitable for Class B fires are: MultiCHEM, Foam, Powder and CO2.

Class C Fires

Class C fires are fires involving flammable gases. This could be natural gas, LPG or any other gases forming a flammable or explosive atmosphere. Class C fires can be tackled with fire extinguishers. Although, the best method of stopping these types of fires is shutting off the supply of the gas.

Manufacturing and industrial warehouses, chemical plants or anywhere that stores large quantities of flammable gases are at particular risk of Class C fires. Class C fires must be tackled using a Powder fire extinguisher.

Class D Fires

Class D fires are niche so therefore are not covered by the conventional types of fire extinguishers. Class D fires are fires involving combustible metals such as potassium, lithium and magnesium. This type of fire is uncommon but is more prevalent in laboratories, warehouses and metal fabricators.

Only specialised fire extinguishers are suitable for use on Class D fires. These are: L2 and M28 fire extinguishers.

Electrical Fires

Electrical fires aren’t their own class of fire because they are seen as more a form of ignition than a fuel. Electrical fires are a risk to all premises that use electricity. They occur when live electrical equipment is involved in a fire. They must not be tackled by a liquid-based fire extinguisher. This is because water is a conductor and will spread the current across a greater area if used. This could potentially endangering the user of the fire extinguisher.

As a result, only Powder (for electrical currents under 1000v) and CO2 fire extinguishers are suitable here, as they do not rely on a liquid agent.

Class F Fires

Class F fires are fires involving deep fat frying and spillages of flammable oils near heat sources. This type of fire poses the highest risk to restaurants and kitchens. These types of fires can be made significantly worse by using a liquid-based agent to extinguish it.

As a result, specialised MultiCHEM, Water Mist and Wet Chemical fire extinguishers are essential. These extinguishers are used in settings that use cooking fats or oils.